# Epa Probit Analysis Program.epub

These programs are used for statistical analysis of data from bioassay studies, such as determining the effects of insecticides on insect mortality. The programs are written in the Mathematica language. You must have the Wolfram Mathematica or Wolfram Player Pro software on your computer to run these programs. Note: to determine whether you have free access to Mathematica, visit the Mathematica web site (www.wolfram.com) and the web site will automatically notify you if you have a site license. If you don't have a site license, the Player Pro software package is more economical to purchase if you will only be using the software to run the probit programs that I have written. Player Pro is not a full implementation of the Mathematica software package, but it will allow you to run programs written in the Mathematica language. If you do not have a site license or do not have the Mathematica or Player Pro software package on your computer, you will not be able to run the programs that I have written.

## Epa Probit Analysis Program.epub

The PROBIT program is used to analyze bioassay data when multiple observations over time were made on the same groups of organisms at one dose of a stimulus. If you made multiple observations over time at more than one dose in a single study, don't use this program to analyze those data. Instead, use the program by Preisler and Robertson (1989. Journal of Economic Entomology 82: 1534-1542). Our program gives you the option of using any of six possible transformations of the data (probit, logit, CLL [complementary log-log], log-probit, log-logit, log-CLL). All information for complete reporting of probit analyses is provided by the program, including: the slopes and intercepts, with their variances and covariance; the chi-square for goodness-of-fit of the regression line; and lethal time values, with confidence limits. The program PROBIT2 does the same thing, but will calculate all six possible transformations at one time.

The backtransformation programs use output from the PROBIT program, or from any other probit analysis program. The BACKTRAN program can be used to transform probit-, logit-, or CLL-transformed data back to the original units (proportion organisms responding to the stimulus) to help assess goodness of fit. The program will also calculate residuals and standardized residuals of proportion organisms responding to the stimulus. The program outputs time or dose, the observed and predicted proportion organisms responding at each time or dose, and the residual and standardized residual corresponding to each time or dose. The program also outputs the observed and predicted probit-transformed (or logit- or CLL-transformed) data corresponding to each time or dose. These data can be used to plot observed vs. predicted proportion organisms responding to the stimulus, or the corresponding probits, to assess goodness-of-fit. These graphs are also automatically generated by the BACKTRAN program. BACKTRAN should be used only for data that are correlated i.e., you looked at the same insects over several time periods. If your data consist of independent observations - i.e., a different batch of organisms for every observation time or for each dose - use BACKTRN2.

The accessory programs use output from the PROBIT program, or from any other probit analysis program. The SLOPE program is used to calculate whether slopes and intercepts from two regression lines differ. The RELPOT program is used to calculate relative potency of two stimuli, including confidence limits on relative potency.

The tools you select depend on your analysis needs and your comfort level with programming. We recommend that inexperienced users begin with the tools that do not require programming expertise. A menu-driven package (CADStat) will allow you to conduct several types of data visualization and statistical analyses using a menu-driven interface. The Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) Generator provides detailed instructions and macros to generate SSDs. Users with knowledge of command-line statistical programming can begin with the more complex, analytically flexible tools.

CADStat is a menu-driven package of several data visualization and statistical methods. It is based on a Java Graphical User Interface to R. Methods in this package include: scatterplots, box plots, correlation analysis, linear regression, quantile regression, conditional probability analysis, and tools for predicting environmental conditions from biological observations. See the Helpful Links box for links to the CADStat installation instructions and Java GUI Interface to R.

The SSD Generator can be downloaded from the Helpful Links box. More information on using SSDs in causal analysis can be found on the Species Sensitivity Distribution page (follow the link in the helpful links box).

PriProbit was developed by Dr. Masayuki Sakuma at Kyoto University in Japan. This program is for probit analysis of preference data, such as might be obtained in behavioral studies, but can also be used for analysis of dose-mortality data from bioassay studies. This program is supported by Dr. Sakuma, not USDA. USDA provides the program at this site only for the convenience of our customers. USDA does not guarantee the suitability of the program for data analysis. Questions about PriProbit and requests for support for PriProbit should be addressed to Dr. Sakuma at sakuma@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp. The method upon which the program is based is described in: Sakuma, M. 1998. Probit analysis of preference data. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 33: 339-347.

Application software for economical and convenient calculation of median effective doses, confidence limits, potency ratios and slopes of quantal dose-response curves using a microcomputer is presented. The PASCAL language program is stored on diskette and it is compatible with many commercially available microcomputer systems. The program will simultaneously calculate the parameters for up to 20 different treatments and a total of 100 doses. Comparisons between the results of calculations of the LD50 of thiopental in mice using the PASCAL program, a modem-accessed commercially available probit analysis program and three, widely accepted manual calculation methods are made. The results of calculations of parallelism and the potency ratio between thiopental and phenobarbital-induced death in mice are shown.

The Toxicity Relationship Analysis Program (TRAP) fits a symmetric, sigmoidal effects versus exposure relationship to toxicity test data. It will analyze binary (e.g., survival) or continuous (e.g., growth) biological effect variables as a function of any one-dimensional exposure variable. It will provide both best estimates and confidence limits for the parameters of the relationship and for the values of the exposure variable eliciting user-specified levels of effect. A Windows user interface provides for (a) entering data manually, from ASCII data files, and by copying from other software, (b) specifying options for the analysis and observing results, and (c) printing results and exporting them to other software. The program is a single executable file compatible with any Windows version and is accompanied by a help file containing operating instructions and information on the nature and performance of this analysis methodology.

BioStat allows to perform various types of analysis - basic statistics and tables, ANOVA, regression analysis, non-parametric statistics, survival and power analysis.Analysis results are written into new worksheet and could be easily edited or exported.

StatPlus includes all the BioStat features and even more: design of experiment, time series analysis and forecasting, control charts for quality control. StatPlus comes as both standalone spreadsheet and Excel add-in,and works on Windows and Mac OS.

From the same larvicidal experiment, median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated. The mortality values were analyzed through SPSS software using Probit analysis35. Log concentrations and probit obtained from the SPSS software (version 20) were then analyzed using MINITAB software. This LC50 was considered the LC50 for F0 generation.

K.A. did all the experiments and wrote the manuscript. R.S. did the statistical analysis and aided in the experimental works. B.K. conceived and designed the experiments, supervised the experiments and revised the manuscript.

The MATLAB function in TSK.m analyzes a dose-response curve and calculates the median dose (for instance, the lethal dose for 50% of the population (LD50)) using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. This is an alternative to dose-response analysis methods such as probit and logit methods. It does not require glmfit or the stats toolbox.

Evaluating the toxicity or effectiveness of two or more toxicants in a specific population often requires specialized statistical software to calculate and compare median lethal doses (LD50s). Tests for equality of LD50s using probit regression with parallel slopes have been implemented in many software packages, while tests for cases of arbitrary slopes are not generally available.

In this study, we established probit-log(dose) regression models and solved them by the maximum likelihood method using Microsoft Excel. The z- and χ2-tests were used to assess significance and goodness of fit to the probit regression models, respectively. We calculated the lethal doses (LDs) of the toxicants at different significance levels and their 95% confidence limits (CLs) based on an accurate estimation of log(LD) variances. We further calculated lethal dose ratios and their 95% CLs for two examples without assuming parallel slopes following the method described by Robertson, et al., 2017.

This procedure yielded accurate estimates of lethal doses and 95% CLs at different significance levels as well as the lethal dose ratios and 95% CLs between two examples. The procedure could be used to assess differences in the toxicities of two examples without the assumption of parallelism between probit-log(dose) regression lines.